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Environmental Factors in Greenhouses

Published: May 17, 2024 by Kim Elverding | Updated: May 17, 2024

Crop productivity hinges on a balance of environmental factors. Understanding the significance of these elements and how they can be optimised within greenhouses and protected cropping environments is crucial for achieving successful and consistent yields.


Light is the primary energy source for photosynthesis and is essential in plant growth and development. The quality and consistency of your yield is influenced by light intensity, quality, and duration. In greenhouses, you can select the right shade cloth, plastic or film to tailor light conditions to specific crop requirements, extending growing seasons and enhancing productivity. You can even add artificial lights to keep the production going during the darker winter months.

Air & Plant Temperature

The plant metabolism, growth rates, and flowering are greatly impacted by temperature. Greenhouses offer the advantage of controlling temperature through heating and cooling systems, but also through vents and roll-up sides that work based on weather conditions. This control allows you to cultivate crops year-round, expanding production windows and ensuring consistent yields.


Although light and temperature make sure that the plant grows, nutrients ensure that the plant sustains. In greenhouses and controlled environments, you have less risk of external factors negatively affecting your crops’ nutrients. You can be precise in the balanced diet tailored to their needs. This efficient nutrient delivery supports growth and higher yields while minimizing waste and environmental impact.


Humidity influences plant transpiration, nutrient uptake, and susceptibility to pests and diseases. Greenhouses enable growers to regulate humidity through ventilation and misting systems, creating an environment for optimal productivity. By controlling humidity levels, growers also mitigate the risk of fungal diseases and physiological disorders.


Water is the lifeblood of plants. It is essential for nutrient transport, photosynthesis, and overall plant hydration. Greenhouses equipped with irrigation systems allow for precise water management, delivering the right amount of moisture directly to the plant’s root zone. This controlled irrigation reduces water wastage, minimises runoff, and ensures efficient water usage, promoting sustainable cultivation practices.

Air movement

Air movement is vital for optimal growing conditions in greenhouses. By using fans, vents, or natural airflow, growers can prevent stagnant air, maintain consistent temperature and humidity, and reduce the risk of diseases and fungi. This promotes efficient photosynthesis, strengthens plants, and ultimately leads to higher yields.


To ensure you create the optimal growing conditions to promote plant growth and development, there are a few key aspects to keep in mind:

  • Light to stimulate photosynthesis
  • Air & Plant Temperature to stimulate metabolism, growth rates and flowering
  • Nutrients to support growth
  • Humidity to mitigate risk of fungal diseases and physiological disorders
  • Water to optimise nutrient transport and plant hydration
  • Air Movement to prevent stagnant air, maintain temperature and humidity and reduce diseases

Greenhouses and protected cropping systems provide growers with the tools and technologies to optimise these factors, creating an ideal growing environment that maximises yields while minimising resource inputs. It allows growers to grow throughout the year and meet the growing demands of buyers and consumers.

Want to discover the best suitable structure for your crops? With over 35 years of experience, we have supported growers in many industries to protect their crops. Contact us today for personalised advice and a free quote.